Bentham's book An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation was printed in but not published until It is possible that Bentham was spurred on to publish after he saw the success of Paley's The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy. Bentham's work opens with a statement of the principle of utility: It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do… By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever according to the tendency it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question:
The full pdf can be viewed by clicking here. Ethics Theories- Utilitarianism Vs. Deontological Ethics There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: Utilitarianism also called consequentialism is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill There are several varieties of utilitarianism.
But basically, a utilitarian approach to morality implies that Utilitarianism deontology essays moral act e. Rather, the rightness or wrongness of an act or rule is solely a matter of the overall nonmoral good e.
In sum, according to utilitarianism, morality is a matter of the nonmoral good produced that results from moral actions and rules, and moral duty is instrumental, not intrinsic. Morality is a means to some other end; it is in no way an end in itself.
Space does not allow for a detailed critique of utilitarianism here. Suffice it to say that the majority of moral philosophers and theologians have found it defective. One main problem is that utilitarianism, if adopted, justifies as morally appropriate things that are clearly immoral.
For example, utilitarianism can be used to justify punishing an innocent man or enslaving a small group of people if such acts produce a maximization of consequences.
But these acts are clearly immoral regardless of how fruitful they might be for the greatest number. For this and other reasons, many thinkers have advocated a second type of moral theory, deontological ethics.
Deontological ethics is in keeping with Scripture, natural moral law, and intuitions from common sense. The rightness or wrongness of an act or rule is, at least in part, a matter of the intrinsic moral features of that kind of act or rule.
For example, acts of lying, promise breaking, or murder are intrinsically wrong and we have a duty not to do these things. This does not mean that consequences of acts are not relevant for assessing those acts.
For example, a doctor may have a duty to benefit a patient, and he or she may need to know what medical consequences would result from various treatments in order to determine what would and would not benefit the patient.
But consequences are not what make the act right, as is the case with utilitarianism. Rather, at best, consequences help us determine which action is more in keeping with what is already our duty.
Consequences help us find what is our duty, they are not what make something our duty. Second, humans should be treated as objects of intrinsic moral value; that is, as ends in themselves and never as a mere means to some other end say, overall happiness or welfare. As we will see in Part Two, this notion is very difficult to justify if one abandons the theological doctrine of man being made in the image of God.
Nevertheless, justified or unjustified, deontological ethics imply that humans are ends in themselves with intrinsic value. Third, a moral principle is a categorical imperative that is universalizable; that is, it must be applicable for everyone who is in the same moral situation.
Christian Research Institute Our Mission: To provide Christians worldwide with carefully researched information and well-reasoned answers that encourage them in their faith and equip them to intelligently represent it to people influenced by ideas and teachings that assault or undermine orthodox, biblical Christianity.Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
"Utility" is defined in various ways, usually in terms of the well-being of sentient entities. Jeremy Bentham, the founder of utilitarianism, described utility as the sum of all pleasure that results from an action, minus the suffering of anyone involved . Free Ethical papers, essays, and research papers.
The Importance of Ethical Integrity - What is ethical integrity and why is it important. The word deontology derives from the Greek words for duty (deon) and science (or study) of (logos).In contemporary moral philosophy, deontology is one of those kinds of normative theories regarding which choices are morally required, forbidden, or permitted.
Utilitarianism, Hedonism, and Desert: Essays in Moral Philosophy (Cambridge Studies in Philosophy) [Fred Feldman] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Fred Feldman has made a substantial contribution to utilitarian moral philosophy.
In this collection. The Ethical Theory Of Utilitarianism - The intentions you have behind an action determine whether you perform that action or not.
Initially your intentions are to look at the greater “good” of the action and if that good outweighs the bad then you’ll probably initiate that action.
Free ethical dilemma papers, essays, and research papers.