Medicine in ancient Greece and Medicine in ancient Rome In the written record, the study of herbs dates back 5, years to the ancient Sumerianswho described well-established medicinal uses for plants. In Ancient Egyptian medicinethe Ebers papyrus from c. Many herbs and minerals used in Ayurveda were described by ancient Indian herbalists such as Charaka and Sushruta during the 1st millennium BC.
Modern medicine Knowledge protection Open access but social or legal restrictions may govern who can use certain knowledge, under what conditions and with what benefit for knowledge holders Closed, patent-protected Ad hoc during consultation with the patient Predetermined and, once approved in clinical trials, formulas cannot be changed unless retested Regulation Usually loose.
In some cases with restrictions on use or dissemination. Rules and standardisation are being introduced but vary between countries Extremely tight Testing No formal testing: Many traditional medicines are made by crushing leaves or bark, and the Traditional medicine and people mixture can contain hundreds of potentially active molecules.
Identifying these is hard enough, and testing each one for safety and effectiveness is practically impossible. Unlike many modern pharmaceuticals, the quality of material for traditional medicines varies enormously between, and even within, source countries and plants.
This is both because of genetic differences and other factors such as environmental conditions, harvesting, transport and storage. Dosage is similarly varied.
Modern medicine demands dosages that are standardised based on factors such as bodyweight or disease severity. Traditional healers are more likely to give patients a unique dosage or combination of medicines that is decided during the consultation.
So when modern evaluations of traditional drugs give poor results, it may be due to many factors: Protection and biopiracy Perhaps the most striking difference between traditional and modern medicines is the legal protection given to knowledge.
Modern medicine, on the other hand, has stringent intellectual property laws and a highly evolved protective patenting system.
Researchers have sometimes sought patents for compounds that had already been used for centuries. An example is the patent on an antifungal neem derivative commonly used in Indian traditional remedies.
It took the Indian government five years and millions of dollars to convince the EPO to revoke the patent on the basis of prior use. Research into traditional medicines remains controversial. French researchers looked for active ingredients and isolated Guieranon B, which showed anti-cancer activity in preclinical studies.
The researchers filed patent claims in and are looking for partners to develop a drug — but without including the African people with whom the knowledge originates.
Legal frameworks and sharing benefits There is an urgent need for both global and local legal frameworks to regulate bioprospecting activities and avoid biopiracy. However, protecting intellectual property IP rights of indigenous peoples and local communities to traditional medical knowledge is a thorny issue.
Also, patent protection is typically time-limited, while traditional medical knowledge should be protected retroactively or indefinitely or both. The problem is so complex that the World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO has established an ad hoc committee to develop an international legal instrument to protect traditional medical knowledge, and address the IP aspects of benefit-sharing and access to genetic resources.
The Nagoya Protocol is an existing international legal tool that offers some protection for traditional knowledge of medicines. Its main objective is to equitably share the benefits gained from using genetic resources and it clearly addresses the associated rights of indigenous communities.
It forces countries to ensure that anyone under their jurisdiction who benefits from traditional knowledge has obtained prior informed consent and negotiated a fair and equitable deal to share those benefits.
The San Bushmen of the Kalahari and benefit sharing For the San people of southern Africa, the path to benefit sharing began with controversy around the Hoodia gordonii plant, used for centuries by the San to stave off hunger and thirst.Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis Jon C Tilburt a, Ted J Kaptchuk b Introduction.
Traditional herbal medicines are naturally occurring, plant-derived substances with minimal or no industrial processing that have been used to treat illness within local or regional healing practices. Introduction. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) originated in ancient China and has evolved over thousands of years.
TCM practitioners use herbal medicines and various mind and body practices, such as acupuncture and tai chi, to treat or prevent health benjaminpohle.com the United States, people use TCM primarily as a complementary health benjaminpohle.com fact sheet provides a general overview of TCM.
Jun 12, · Traditional Medicine in KINGDOM OF THAILAND O99 Center for the Development of Thai Traditional Medicine and Pharmacy” which was later upgraded to the division level in as the “Institute of Thai Traditional Medicine” (ITTM).
Navajo Herbs. Navajo uses of plants are tied to land, culture, and beliefs. For instance, the yucca plant has many uses to the Navajo: its suds make good shampoo, its fibers can be used to make rope, shoes, and ceremonial items, and its edible fruit and flowers are a spring and summer treat.
Traditional medicine may sometimes be considered as distinct from folk medicine, and the considered to include formalized aspects of folk medicine.
Under this definition folk medicine are longstanding remedies passed on and practised by lay people.
What is Traditional Chinese Medicine? Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is an ancient set of practices from China that operate under the belief that the processes of the human body are interrelated and connected to the environment.