The pitcher makes a pick to first Often when there is a runner on first, we are concerned about them stealing second. We try picking them off and the next thing we know we've handed them the next base without making them earn it. Or worse, the overthrow gets down the right field line and the runner advances to third on the play.
Discussions about site and page structure usually center around the most visible aspects of navigation, user interface, and content organization, but attention to the file and directory structure and how you name things within your site can produce big payoffs in: Your current team, future site maintainers, and most site users will benefit from careful, consistent, plain-language site nomenclature Flexibility: If every object in your site has a name, everything can be found, styled, and programmatically manipulated much more easily Accessibility: Named objects are more accessible to programmatic and style sheet control across all media types and give you flexibility in implementing universal accessibility features in your site Search Three levels of structure of language Careful site nomenclature makes it much easier to optimize a site for search engine visibility Future growth and change: A consistent, modular approach to site construction can be scaled from small sites containing a dozen pages all the way up to content-managed sites consisting of tens of thousands of pages.
Although we can present general principles for site structure here, the technical environment and functional demands of many sites may require particular forms of file naming. The fundamental point is that, whatever your site environment, you should develop systematic rules for naming every component of your site, make sure that everyone in the team understands and follows those rules, and use plain language wherever possible.
Naming conventions Never use technical or numeric gibberish to name a component when a plain-language name will do.
In the early days of personal computing, clumsy systems like ms-dos and Windows 3. Naming pages, directories, and supporting files Although we think of web pages and their graphics as a unit, web page files do not contain graphics but consist instead of embedded links to separate graphics files.
Attention to file and directory names is essential to keeping track of the myriad pages and supporting files that make up a web site fig. We recommend this convention for directory names, too.
Mirror your visible site structure wherever possible Directory and file naming conventions that directly mirror the visible organization of your site are infinitely easier for your team and users to understand and will contribute to search engine rankings and relevance, because the whole url becomes a useful semantic guide to your content structure.
Each component of your page url can contribute to search page ranking, but only if the names make sense in the context of your page content and relate to key words or phrases on the page. This poorly named url contributes nothing to search engine relevance or site structure legibility: Structure for efficiency and maintainability Well-designed sites contain modular elements that are used repeatedly across many dozens or hundreds of pages.
These elements may include the global navigation header links and graphics for the page header or the contact information and mailing address of your enterprise.
It makes no sense to include the text and html code that make up standard page components in each file.
Instead, use a single file containing the standardized element that repeats across hundreds of pages: An include file is just a text file containing ordinary html page code. Always look for opportunities to pull repeating content out of the page files and into an include file.
The css cascade has two major elements: CSS cascade hierarchy css has multiple hierarchical levels that cascade in importance and priority, from general css code shared by all pages, to code that is contained in a particular page file, to code that is embedded in specific html tags.
General page code overrides shared site code, and css code embedded in html tags overrides general page code. This hierarchical cascade of css priorities allows you to set very general styles for your whole site while also permitting you to override the styles where needed with specific section or page styles fig.
Thus you can use very general styles but also add code to customize individual elements where necessary. Shared CSS across many pages Multiple css files can work together across a site.
This concept of multiple css files working together in a modular way is the heart of the cascade system of pages that all share code via links to master css files that control styles throughout the site.
This system has obvious advantages: In a complex site, page designers often link groups of css files to style a site. Packaging multiple css files can have many practical advantages. Each css file in the multifile cascade adds information, moving from sitewide general layout and typographic styles to visual styles that may be specific to a few pages fig.
Media style sheets Another advantage of css is the ability to provide context-appropriate designs using media style sheets. Support for media style sheets is not all that it could be, but there is sufficient support for screen, print, and, to a lesser degree, handheld devices. Semantic structure for HTML content containers As you plan the page wireframe templates for your site, consider the advantages of careful semantic html and css within the individual html files.
Divisions and spans should always be named carefully, and major repeating page elements should each have a unique id. These named divisions and spans are crucial for three reasons: Uniquely named page elements give you complete programmatic and style sheet control.
Uniquely named page divisions allow you to apply css visual styles more easily and powerfully to particular page areas or blocks of content.
Uniquely named page areas will give you many more options in the future, as new web content display devices and types of style sheets are developed. Someday you may want to convert your site to a new content management system. If all your pages and content are contained in consistent, systematically named page divisions, transforming your site will be much easier.
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