Tattooed people as taboo figures in modern society Tattooed People as Taboo Figures in Modern Society - Tattooed People as Taboo I will open with words from "The Body Decorated," which I think aptly describe the significance of tattooed women in our society, "The body is the physical link between our souls, the outside world, and ourselves.
It is the medium through which we most directly project ourselves in social life; our use, decoration and presentation of Tattooing of both sexes in samoa essay say precise things about the society in which we live, the degree of our integration within that society, and the controls which society exerts over the inner person" Ebin, While often dismissed as a somewhat mystical and an incomprehensible aesthetic, tattoo was once a living symbol of common participation in the cyclical and subsistence culture of the hunter-gatherer.
Tattoo recorded the "biographies" of personhood, reflecting individual and social experience through an array of significant relationships that oscillated between the poles of masculine and feminine, human and animal, sickness and health, the living and the dead.
Arguably, tattoo provided a nexus between the individual and communally defined forces that shape perceptions of existence. This paper will start with a broad definition of tattoo taken from Michael Delahunt, in The Fashioned Self "a European adaptation of a Polynesian word to describe markings known as tatu or tatau.
Tattoo is a form of body art, in which a needle is pushed into the skin and a pigment injected" Finkelstein, The second definition I offer to clarify my aim, tabu, is also a word of Polynesian origin, "meaning or referring to people or things which are forbidden because they are dangerous as a result of their sacred nature or holy associations" Kottack, Cultural expression is based on how people relate to and express usually through art and symbolism the values and standards of their particular society Kottack, Whereas, nonverbal communication encompasses many different channels, it is communication "given off" that is, it is nonverbal and relates to the presentation of self and to the impression one desires to make Goffman, The following is an overview, briefly introducing the arguments I will present to support my claim.
There is a historical precedence for women tattooing, as an ancient practice, it is tied inextricably with human concepts about aestheticism, gender and social identity. It is my contention that tattoo practices must be seen as part of the overall body decoration theme, and are used as a means of expression or communication within society Daly, ; Freund, In view of their occurrence and wide distribution it would appear that the major modes and techniques of body art are very old.
The earliest known firm evidence for tattoo is in ancient Egypt, where they record years of tattooing.
It is of interest to note that most tattoos in archaeological records are those of women, and if one wanted to be contraire, might suggest that this now, most macho of art forms, may once have been a female preserve Jagger and Krakow, Modern western tattoo begins with the exploratory voyages of Captain James Cook in the mid 18th century; to Polynesia where Cook and his crew encountered South Pacific tattoo culture.
This hierarchical construct produced by the great scholars of the age was basically a vehicle for class-based prejudice Harper, People and animals were arranged in strict status strata, from the monarch down, with the primitive, the poor, criminals and certain sorts of animals at the bottom of the heap Harper, Such schemes later became the basis of such practices as eugenics and apartheid and still colour Western mainstream reaction to body art today Vale and Juno In Polynesian society tattooing was the norm however, and played a "key role in the construction of the person" Vale and Juno, In Polynesian regimes such as Hawaii, New Zealand, the Marquesas, Samoa and Melanesian Fiji the cultures, whilst not sharing a cultural logic, do exhibit similarities in that body art is used as a means of expression and communication within society Gell, Among the Samoans some designs showed political loyalty and generational ties in the family: Tattooing with Maori women was, and is, a sign of pure feminine beauty Bateson and Mead, ; Gell, ; Hambly, Basically the more adorned you were, the more beautiful and wanted by the men Gell, This meant picking the mate you were most attracted to; the man with the stronger, fertile abilities came more easily, thus making offspring strong and healthy gell; Other ethnographical and historical sources of body art come from "Native America".
It is not without a certain amount of irony then, that white Europeans have adopted the very art styles of the populations who were systematically exterminated by their emigrant and colonial ancestors Chapkis, ; Bolin, We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students.
Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned. The Inuit women at contact are an example of this lost form of cultural expression. There seems to have been no widely distributed tattoo design among Inuit women, although chin stripes tamlughun were more commonly found than any other Kruttak, Chin stripes served multiple purposes in social contexts.
Most notably, they were tattooed on the chin as part of the ritual of social maturity, a signal to men that a woman had reached puberty Kruttack, More generally, the chin stripe aesthetic was important to the Diomede Islanders living in Bering Strait.
Ideally, thin lines tattooed onto the chin were valuable indicators for choosing a wife, according to anthropologist Sergei Bogojavlensky as quoted in Harrington Expecting this to be the universal case, Euro-American sociologists have often seen it to be so, even in cultures where women are neither superior nor inferior to men, and both sexes are valued for the contributions they make to the society (Wilshire, ).
, The tattooing of both sexes in Samoa / by Carl Marquardt R. McMillan Papakura [N.Z.] Wikipedia Citation Please see Wikipedia's template documentation for further citation fields that may be required.
In the Samoa region of Europe, tattooing was important for religious rituals and warfare. Here the tattooing artists were highly known and privileged. When the Samoa people wanted to tattoo they tended to do it in groups of six to eight men at a time, while their family members attended.
In the Tongan area the artist tattooed from the waist to the knee, here the Samoa people tattoo from the waist right below .
to any one of them. However, in this essay I want to explore two themes that stand out for me in the photographs. One is the correspondence between Samoan tattooing as a memory system and Adams’s The mode of the portrait changed after both men moved north in the early s.
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In Auckland, Adams The Tattooing of Both Sexes in Samoa. A representation of the Southern Cross appears on both the national flag and the emblem of state.
The close link between Samoan society and Christianity is symbolized in the national motto "Samoa is founded on God" (Fa'avae ile Atua Samoa) and in a highlighted cross on the national emblem.
The sea and the coconut palm, both major food sources, also are shown on the emblem. Tattooing of Both Sexes in Samoa Essay TATTOOING OF BOTH SEXES IN SAMOA The art of tattooing is widespread throughout Polynesia, and in Samoa the art form has become and remained strong.
In Samoa the process of tattooing is known as TATAU.