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This is primarily a list of Greatest Mathematicians of the Past, but I use birth as an arbitrary cutoff, and two of the "Top " are still alive now. Click here for a longer List of including many more 20th-century mathematicians.

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Shortly after Everett's well-received remarks, Lincoln spoke for only a few minutes. Despite the historical significance of Lincoln's speech, modern scholars disagree as to its exact wording, and contemporary transcriptions published in newspaper accounts of the event and even handwritten copies by Lincoln himself differ in their wording, punctuation, and structure.

It is the only version to which Lincoln affixed his signature, and the last he is known to have written. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.

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We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground.

The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.

It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

James McPherson notes this connection in his review of Wills's book. Begins with an acknowledgment of revered predecessors: It is difficult to find a single obviously classical reference in any of his speeches.

Lincoln had mastered the sound of the King James Bible so completely that he could recast abstract issues of constitutional law in Biblical terms, making the proposition that Texas and New Hampshire should be forever bound by a single post office sound like something right out of Genesis.

The title figure bears a tablet inscribed with Lincoln's famous phrase. Several theories have been advanced by Lincoln scholars to explain the provenance of Lincoln's famous phrase "government of the people, by the people, for the people".

Despite many claims, there is no evidence a similar phrase appears in the Prologue to John Wycliffe 's English translation of the Bible.

I brought with me additional sermons and lectures of Theodore Parker, who was warm in his commendation of Lincoln. He liked especially the following expression, which he marked with a pencil, and which he in substance afterwards used in his Gettysburg Address: Smith, in "Criticism of Political Rhetoric and Disciplinary Integrity", suggested Lincoln's view of the government as expressed in the Gettysburg Address was influenced by the noted speech of Massachusetts Senator Daniel Websterthe "Second Reply to Hayne"in which Webster famously thundered "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!

It is not the creature of State legislatures; nay, more, if the whole truth must be told, the people brought it into existence, established it, and have hitherto supported it, for the very purpose, amongst others, of imposing certain salutary restraints on State sovereignties.

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Marylanda case upholding federal authority to create a national bank and to be free from the State's powers to tax. In asserting the superiority of federal power over the states, Chief Justice Marshall stated: In form, and in substance, it emanates from them.

Its powers are granted by them, and are to be exercised directly on them, and for their benefit. Wills observed Lincoln's usage of the imagery of birth, life, and death in reference to a nation "brought forth", "conceived", and that shall not "perish". Guelzothe director of Civil War Era studies at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania, [29] suggested that Lincoln's formulation "four score and seven" was an allusion to the King James Version of the Bible's Psalms Lincoln gave copies to his private secretaries, John Nicolay and John Hay.

Robert Lincoln began a search for the original copy inwhich resulted in the discovery of a handwritten copy of the Gettysburg Address among the bound papers of John Hay—a copy now known as the "Hay copy" or "Hay draft". In an article that included a facsimile of this copy, Nicolay, who had become the custodian of Lincoln's papers, wrote that Lincoln had brought to Gettysburg the first part of the speech written in ink on Executive Mansion stationery, and that he had written the second page in pencil on lined paper before the dedication on November This copy of the Gettysburg Address apparently remained in John Nicolay's possession until his death inwhen it passed to his friend and colleague John Hay.

In this copy, as in the Nicolay copy, the words "under God" are not present. This version has been described as "the most inexplicable" of the drafts and is sometimes referred to as the "second draft".The official web site of the Ohio Public Library Information Network.

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The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley benjaminpohle.com measured the willingness of study participants, men from a diverse range of occupations with varying levels of education, to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts conflicting with their personal conscience.

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