Special Obligations and Consequentialism What is special about special obligations? One way to answer this question is to contrast special obligations with some type of duty or obligation that is not special. Special obligations can also be contrasted with another type of non-special duty. According to one version of consequentialism, the right action is that action which, of all alternatives available to the agent, produces the greatest net sum of intrinsic value, where intrinsic value is value as an end or for its own sake and not merely as a means to something other than itself.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract A continuing need for care for elderly, combined with looser family structures prompt the question what filial obligations are. Do adult children of elderly have a duty to care?
Several theories of filial obligation are reviewed. The reciprocity argument is not sensitive to the parent—child relationship after childhood.
A theory of friendship does not offer a correct parallel for the relationship between adult child and elderly parent. Arguments based on need or vulnerability run the risk of being unjust to those on whom a needs-based claim is laid.
The good of being in an Children debts obligations and sommers essay relationship seems the best basis for filial obligations, with an according duty to maintain the relationship when possible. We suggest this relationship should be maintained even if one of the parties is no longer capable of consciously contributing to it.
This implies that care for the elderly is not in the first place a task for adult children. Filial obligations, Care, Elderly parents, Adult children, Ethics, Health care policy Introduction In most cultures, some care for elderly parents by adult children is generally expected.
These expectations may be found among elderly parents or adult children, in social norms and in the practice of allocation decisions for state-funded home help. Expectations of different parties often do not converge, which brings up the question what expectations are legitimate in the relationship between adult child and elderly parent.
A number of demographic trends increase the need for a clarification of filial expectations or obligations. In the future, there will be a larger percentage of elderly in our population CBS Even if it is probable that they will be in better health than generations of elderly before them Perenboom et al.
At the same time, smaller nuclear families limit the availability of adult children for support giving. Furthermore, many nuclear families undergo changes in their composition over the course of their existence: An account of obligations of adult children towards elderly parents needs to allow for a variety of situations.
The provision of support to family members, neighbors or friends is not self-evident under a doctrine of individualism, and the question what a correct interpretation of filial obligations ought to be becomes even more pressing.
We will present five theories of filial obligations, discussed in the literature over the past decades: Theories of filial obligations The argument of reciprocity A popular idea of why we have obligations towards our elderly parents is that of reciprocity Blieszner and Hamon ; Dykstra and Fokkema Among these could be the fact that parents brought children into existence, nurtured them, educated them, and provided them with material things, among which the most basic ones of food, clothes and shelter: The idea that adult children owe their parents something in return can be viewed as a commonsense moral belief: Collingridge and Miller ; English English claims that a debt comes into existence in response to a favor 1and that the proper way to discharge a debt is to return the favor with a favor of equal magnitude.
English rejects the idea of the parent—child relationship as one in which favors are exchanged. She claims that past parental sacrifices are as good as irrelevant when the relationship between adult children and elderly parents is considered, and that the current relationship is what really matters see below for a discussion of the friendship model of filial obligation.
Wicclair instead asserts that not debt but gratitude is the appropriate basis of filial obligations. In addition, gratitude is owed also for unrequested favors Wicclairp.
In other words, showing gratitude is not enough——filial obligations require actions. When we think about the argument of reciprocity as a commonsense moral belief, this belief does probably not involve keeping a checkbook of what is given and received, nor the notion that exactly that should be given which is received.
It cannot be meant to imply the repayment of a debt in the literal sense, and to portray the argument thus makes it a caricature.The goal is to collect revenue on the incremental value in excess of annual debt obligations and expenses incurred by the municipality on behalf of the TIF.
One debt example would be the payment on bonds used to finance the infrastructure required up-front such as roads, sanitary and storm sewer, water and other utilities.
Any debts or obligations incurred by either party before the that are not date of separation, identified in the list above or attached shall be paid by the party who incurred the debt or Superior Court.
Essay on Personal Experience in Raising Children - A bond that a child has with their parents can never be match. The love a parent gives their child is priceless.
Aspect one, Favors Create Debts is a suggestion to perform equal, reciprocal, canceling sacrifices. Essay on do children owe their parents?
The core of our business focuses on providing students with a quality custom essay writing service, capable of handling any academic difficulties that you might come across. Our aim is to become the best essay writing service; however, that is not an easy task. To do so, we offer much broader, genuine support to our clients than our competitors. According to Debt Theory, as articulated here, children have specific obligations to their parents: they must repay their parents’ “investment” in child rearing. Parents contribute resources to raising children, including time, money, energy, and so on. Each of these resources could have been devoted to something other than raising a child. Oct 05, · Wicclair instead asserts that not debt but gratitude is the appropriate basis of filial obligations. In contrast to debts which are determined by how much is received, gratitude is indeterminate and is responsive to the receiver’s needs. She concludes that adult children have no obligation towards their elderly parents.
- Jane English, a philosophy professor at the University of North Carolina argues that grown children have no filial obligations to their parents.
Jane English believes that there are two. is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her.
The core of our business focuses on providing students with a quality custom essay writing service, capable of handling any academic difficulties that you might come across.
Our aim is to become the best essay writing service; however, that is not an easy task. To do so, we offer much broader, genuine support to our clients than our competitors.