Developments in design of such materials seem to have followed shifts in the dominant paradigms within psychology.
Such student demographics continue to shift, affecting both schools and teaching Hodgkinson, In contrast, our teaching force remains predominantly white, middle-class females Davidman,; Smith, With an increasingly culturally diverse and technological society, it is essential that all children be provided equitable opportunities to master the mathematical skills essential for social and economic success.
Yet, in research and educational reports, curricular and instructional elements of bias are recognized for minorities, females, and children of poverty as an ongoing concern in classrooms with respect to their poor performance in mathematics Campbell, ; National Research Council,; National Science Foundation, ; Oakes, ;Rechin, ; Secada, Mathematics has been traditionally viewed as a discipline where success is limited to a minority as opposed to a majority of children.
During the past several years there has been a conscious effort by mathematics educators to change this view of mathematics to an orientation that focuses on making mathematics accessible and enjoyable for all children.
Reform efforts address topics such as the need for relevance by virtue of providing real-life applications, collection and organization of data, and problem solving as opposed to rote memorization of procedures. In addition, the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics NCTM,prepared by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, while not directly addressing cultural diversity issues, advocates instructional practices that include the use of manipulative materials, cooperative work, communication of mathematical ideas in everyday language, and writing about mathematics.
It seemed like a natural 'fit' that cultural diversity and mathematics join together to make mathematics truly a discipline for ALL. In light of these facts, two teacher educators united to help teachers in urban elementary classrooms meet the needs of our ever-changing student population.
At the forefront of their shared beliefs were 1 all children can learn and should be afforded the opportunity to do so, 2 a repertoire of best practice must be at the forefront to facilitate essential knowledge, attitudes, and skills for all children, 3 mathematics should be facilitated through emphasis on more problem-solving, hands-on activities, interactive learning experiences, and alternative assessment, and 4 education is the responsibility of all people, not simply the classroom teacher.
Two primary goals, success in math and acceptance of self and others' differences and similarities, were at the heart of the teacher educators' efforts.
With this in mind, all lessons and activities highlighted relevant math curriculum and experiences and provided equitable 1 student acceptance and representation through dialogue to understand differences and similarities of people with respect to attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, 2 verbal and interpersonal interaction patterns and expectations [praise, feedback, questioning, encouragement, proximity], and 3 opportunities for critical thinking, problem-solving, and conceptual understanding through cooperative, hands-on activities to construct meaning.
The instructional vehicles for teaching multicultural education and basic math concepts and skills were game- formatted activities, using hand-made wooden manipulatives. Developing Rapport Creating and maintaining a positive relationship between the teacher educators and children was a primary consideration.
To establish and maintain rapport, make connections between prior and new levels of understanding and perceptions, and reinforce content, it was essential to have high expectations and to use smiles and humor, positive animated verbal and nonverbal behaviors, close proximity, and personalized experiences.
The teacher educators were friendly to each child, while simultaneously establishing required guidelines for participation in hands-on, cooperative learning activities.
The few students who at first felt a little awkward shaking hands or making direct eye contact with the teachers were not coerced, but rather were continually encouraged to participate and use math in a fun and meaningful way.
Creating a Milieu of Understanding and Acceptance of Self and Others To reinforce the acceptance and worth of each child and dispel the myth that math is a Western invention, contributions by females, minorities, and other cultures in the field of math were infused throughout the lessons. Through informal discussion and assessment of the children's present attitudes and knowledge about where they see themselves and others in society, efforts were made to reinforce the value of all persons and to help the students construct links to new information.
The idea of infusing issues on diversity should be an everyday objective, not a once a month or annual topic [i. Black History Month; study of different cultural foods and dress], whether directly or indirectly related to the content.
During two math activities, meaningful discussions evolved about race and gender equity. To reinforce the idea of equity and reaffirm that the game has no boundaries with respect to color or gender, a person's skill level, knowledge of the game, and commitment to play in an organized sport were emphasized.
Using cross-cultural research, it was explained that the stages of physical growth do not vary by race, although the tempo [quickness, speed, agility, strength] may vary due to genetic make-up of an individual or the circumstances in which a child is reared, Black or White, male or female Berk, Athletes such as Michael Jordan, Larry Byrd, Lisa Lesley, and Rebecca Lobo, along with members of the children's own classroom, served as examples to affirm this research.
When the children were asked to select from among the male and female students in their class who they thought would perform the best at shooting a basketball, the results indicated possible change in stereotypical thinking that basketball is a male- oriented game only.
Thus, games were viewed as vehicles for knowledge and skill development and attitude formation. Use of hands-on manipulatives [i.
Organizing the children into cooperative learning groups promoted ideas of acceptance, getting along, sharing ideas, and working as a team to solve problems. Through group interaction, the children were involved in the socialization process of dialoging with one another about, and through, math.
Working in groups, the children learned about math, themselves, and others as they problem-solved together and recorded their findings. Students having limited experience working in cooperative groups, limited problem-solving opportunities, and limited success in math required more structure and supervision in the cooperative learning setting.
The heterogeneous groupings minimized documented harmful effects of ability grouping and poor-quality instruction usually found in lower-ability homogeneous groupings Jones, ; Oakes, Within each cooperative group, female, minority, and low SES students were actively involved to counter the fact that such children are too often given fewer opportunities and less encouragement to learn mathematics Dossey, According to SlavinAllportCatsambisand Rechcooperative learning 1 promotes self-esteem, motivation, and achievement for female and minority students, 2 improves student attitudes toward their classmates, particularly those from backgrounds differing from their own, and 3 lessens boundaries created by gender and race, reducing prejudice when cross-cultural contact situations are cooperative, a feeling of equal status prevails, similar goals are shared, and the contact has the approval of parents, teachers, and other authority figures.
Within each lesson, individual tasks were created to promote competence and acquisition of a specific math skill or concept, and to allow each child to be an active learner and integral member of a problem-solving math team. In playing games with varied hands-on manipulatives, each child had a specific task to complete.
The tasks were adapted to meet the needs of a particular game and area of math content.Quotes. What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients.
Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it.
I have some middle and high school teachers whom I expect will have some questions (in other words, "resistance") regarding the whole idea about older students needing to establish precurser skills in phonics (accuracy, automaticity).
Read educational articles, parenting articles, & more. Guided Lessons Learning Library Teaching Tools. it's more likely to be male students that just can't seem to keep up.
Toys That Stand the Test of Time Toys come in all shapes and sizes, Social Emotional Learning is a new trend in whole child education that's gaining traction. When students are learning a new language, their receptive skills typically develop in advance of their productive skills.
English language learners may indeed understand the discussion in a classroom, but they may have difficulty finding the language they need . Research on the social and cognitive effects of grouping students in mixed-abilities versus same-abilities classrooms is gaining increasing interest among practitioners and researchers.
In hopes of attaining higher scores, many schools have adopted homogeneous ability grouping. Unlike them, our. The A1 suffix is typically seen as part of an application identification number or grant number and “A1” is often used to refer to a new, renewal, or revision application that is amended and resubmitted after the review of a previous application with the same project number.